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A Pap test is a test of cells of the cervix. The cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. The Pap test looks for cells that are not normal and can cause cervical cancer.

Most women ages 21 to 69 need regular Pap tests. But teenage girls and older women usually don’t need them. Here’s why:

Pap tests usually don’t help low-risk women.

Many women have a very low risk for cervical cancer.

  • Cervical cancer is rare in women younger than 21, even if they are sexually active. Abnormal cells in younger women usually return to normal without treatment.
  • Cervical cancer is rare in women over 69 who have had regular Pap tests with normal results.
  • Pap tests are not useful for women who have had their cervix removed during a hysterectomy, unless the hysterectomy was done because there were cancer or pre- cancer cells in the cervix.

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Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even if it spreads to other body parts later. When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix connects the vagina (birth canal) to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus (or womb) is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant.

All women are at risk for cervical cancer. It occurs most often in women over age 30. Long-lasting infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another during sex. At least half of sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives, but few women will get cervical cancer.


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If you’ve ever wondered how often you should pee on a daily basis, you’re not alone. How often you urinate is actually a very important sign of your overall health, beginning in infancy and continuing throughout your life. Keep reading to learn more about urination and when your pee may signal that you need to visit your doctor.

 

Normal Bladder Function and Frequency of Urination

Your kidneys filter out wastes and extra water to produce urine. The urine travels down two narrow tubes called ureters and is then stored in a muscular, balloon-like organ called the bladder. The bladder swells when it’s full and gets smaller as it empties. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through the urethra. In women, the urethral opening is located just above the vagina. In men, it’s at the tip of the penis.

As your bladder fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve signals coordinate the relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles and the muscles of the urethra (urinary sphincter muscles). The muscles of the bladder tighten, pushing the urine out.

If all of this happens eight or more times a day (including a few times in the middle of the night), you may have what’s known as a frequency problem. Frequency can be caused by an overactive bladder.


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One of the most recognized symptom of breast cancer is a lump or mass in the breast tissue, which can be detected by getting a mammogram at a health facility or conducting a self-examination at home. Mammograms are X-rays of the #breast that can detect tumors at a very early stage, before they would be felt or noticed otherwise. During a mammogram, your breasts are compressed between two firm surfaces to spread out the breast tissue. Then an X-ray captures black-and-white images of your breasts that are displayed on a computer screen and examined by a doctor who looks for signs of cancer. Women at average risk are recommended to have a mammogram every year starting at age 45. Starting at age 54, women are recommended to have a screening mammogram every 2 years as long as they remain healthy.




Welcome to New Crystal Health Services, an indigenous Ghanaian health service provider. Our mission is to provide affordable and reliable health care services to the people who really need it and at a price they can afford.


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